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Undergraduate Calendar
Fall 2020

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SCHOOL OF THE ENVIRONMENT: COURSES (ESCI & ESTU)

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ESCI-1000. Natural Hazards and Disasters
The Earth’s component systems and their interrelationships. Earth hazards and the Earth’s interior processes: volcanism and earthquakes. Hazards and surface processes: landslides and floods. Atmospheric hazards: storms, hurricanes and tornadoes. (May be taken by Science students for credit, but does not count as a Science option towards the fulfillment of the specified requirements for a Science degree). (2 lecture hours per week)

ESCI-1010. Our Changing Earth
Origin of the universe and solar system; focus on the Earth and moon; earliest life forms. Measurement of geological time. Global climatic change in geological history; drifting continents; deserts, floods and ice sheets. Fossils and evolution; extinctions and probable causes. Human evolution and migrations; early technologies. (May be taken by Science students for credit, but does not count as a Science option towards the fulfillment of the specified requirements for a Science degree). (2 lecture hours a week)

ESCI-1020. Introduction to Planetary Science
An introduction to the origin of the Universe and Solar System. Topics include: the Big Bang theory; origin and organization of matter; and formation of galaxies, nebulae, stars, and planetary systems. The focus is on the geological features of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. Coverage includes historical perspectives and current theory on astronomy, measurement of the ages of the Universe and Solar System, space exploration, Moon and Mars missions, analyses of NASA satellite images, the origin and evolution of life in the Solar System, and the search for possible extra-terrestrial life and intelligence in the Universe. (May be taken by Science students for credit, but does not count as a Science option towards the fulfillment of the specified requirements for a Science degree.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-1100. Environmental Systems - An Introduction to Environmental Science
An introduction to the components of Earth’s environment (geosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) and the principles and processes defining and influencing environmental systems (energy and matter cycles). Human interactions with, and influences on, the environment will be examined (resource and land use, waste and pollution, development, conservation and sustainability). This course is designed for Science majors. (3 lecture hours a week, optional field trips).

ESCI-1111. Introduction to Earth Science
An introduction to Earth’s physical character and the processes that shape our planet. The focus is on the geosphere: Earth materials, weathering, sedimentation, magmatism and volcanism, metamorphism, deformation, earthquakes, mountain building, and Earth’s internal structure. These will be examined in the context of the origin of Earth, geologic time, and plate tectonics. The nature of mineral and energy resources will also be examined. This course is designed for Science majors. (3 lecture, 2.5 laboratory or tutorial hours a week).

ESCI-1120. Introduction to Geomorphology
The landscapes of the earth, with particular reference to the glaciers, coastlines, rivers, and northern permafrost regions of Canada. (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-1130. Atmosphere and Climate
An introduction to the atmosphere and the basic principles of meteorology and climatology. Topics include weather systems, atmospheric pollution and inadvertent climate modification, climate change and relationships between climate and living organisms. (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-1141 Cartography and Digital Mapping
This introductory course focuses on the key elements of map design, representation of spatial data and map interpretation. Topics will include projections, datums and coordinate reference systems, scale properties and unit calculations, map symbology and map accuracy.Different mapping approaches, such as choropleth, isoline and dot mapping will be utilized throughout the course. Web-based mapping will be introduced. Maps will be designed, generated, and interpreted using paper-based media and modern cartographic software in a laboratory setting. (2 lecture, 2 laboratory hours a week.)

ESCI-1151 Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems and Science
This introductory course focuses on the basic principles, techniques, applications, and impacts of geographic information systems. Vector and raster data structures will be introduced, as well as methods for acquiring, storing, manipulating, and analyzing spatial and non-spatial data. Spatial data conversion, data reformatting, and basic database development techniques will also be explained. Geographic layers will be created and different overlay and spatial query procedures to address various real-world problems will be presented using proprietary and open source GIS software in a laboratory setting. (It is recommended that students take ESCI-1141 before taking this course.) (2 lecture, 2 laboratory hours a week.)

ESCI-2000. Science, Technology, and Society
This course is designed to explore the complex inter-relationships between science, technology, and society. The nature of science and scientific method and selected current issues in science and technology will be discussed. Topics may include chemicals in society, biotechnology and related issues, nuclear energy, and the impact of these technologies on society. Technology, as it relates to human values and public awareness, will also be considered. (Not open to Semester 1 and 2 students.) (May not be taken for credit towards a B.Sc. Degree in Environmental Science.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-2010. Geology and the Environment
Effect of geological factors on the environment; pollution of groundwater, ground subsidence, nuclear waste disposal, subsurface disposal of liquid wastes, earthquake prediction and control. This course is designed specifically for the non-scientist. (May not be taken for credit towards a B.Sc. Degree in Environmental Science.) (2 lecture hours a week or equivalent.)

ESCI-2020. Discovering Dinosaurs
The origin, evolution, behaviour, ecology, and extinction of dinosaurs, and how these aspects of dinosaur science are understood through the study of their fossils. How the public perception and scientific interpretation of dinosaurs have changed over time as a result of new discoveries. (3 lecture hours per week)

ESCI-2101. Earth Materials
An introduction to the fundamental properties and characteristics of Earth materials. Topics include the nature of minerals (the principal components of sediments, soils and rocks), and the general chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics of Earth materials. Coverage includes how geochemical and geophysical methods are used to determine the properties of Earth materials. (2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours/week.)(Prerequisites: ESCI-1111 or ESCI-1100 or consent of instructor.)

ESCI-2131. Introduction to Geochemistry
Introduction to the application of chemical principles to the natural environment. Fundamental concepts in thermodynamics, acid-base equilibria, solubility, reduction-oxidation, organic chemistry, environmental mineralogy, and isotope geochemistry will be discussed in the context of the chemical character of environmental material, and environmental problems. (Prerequisites: CHEM-1100, CHEM-1110.) (3 lecture and/or tutorial hours per week.)

ESCI-2141. Hydrology
Fundamental processes in physical hydrology that control movement and storage of water within a watershed or catchment basin. Components of the water balance (precipitation, interception, infiltration, evapotranspiration, runoff, storage) and their variations in space and time. Theoretical and practical approaches to measurement and forecasting of components and their linkages. Special consideration of snowmelt, streamflow, wetlands, and human impacts. ( Prerequisites: one of ESCI-1120, ESCI-1130 or ESCI-1100; and one of SOSC-2500, STAT-2910, or other University-level mathematics or statistics course; or consent of instructor.) ( 3 lecture, 2 laboratory hours a week.)

ESCI-2201. Climatology
A study of the major climatic elements, with special emphasis on the radiation budget, energy systems, and the hydrological cycle of Earth and the human environment. Climate classification, climatic change, climatological techniques, and aspects of applied climatology also will be examined. (Prerequisites: ESCI-1130.) (2 lecture, 2 laboratory hours a week.)

ESCI-2210. Introduction to Climate Change
A study of the drivers of past, present, and future climate change. Topics include paleoclimate records, future climate projections (both global and regional), and the impact of these changes on the environment. The influence of politics and the media upon climate change are also explored (Prerequisite: ESCI-1100 or ESTU-1100) (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-2300. Introduction to Oceanography
Examination of the physical, chemical, geological and biological aspects of the oceans. Topics will include the interconnectedness of global climate, ocean currents, waves and tides, anthropogenic stressors, and their influence on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-2401. Environmental Geomorphology
The study of landforms and Earth surface processes, and the impact of these processes on the environment. (2 lecture, 2 laboratory hours a week.)

ESCI-2411. Introduction to Petrology
Petrography, textures, composition and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Evolution of magmatic systems. Nature and causes of metamorphism. Relationship between global tectonics and magmatic and metamorphic processes. (Prerequisite: ESCI-2101 or consent of instructor.) (2 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

ESCI-2421. Soils and Sediments
An introduction to the properties and characteristics of soils and sediments, the materials that cover much of Earth’s surface and underlie surface water bodies. Topics include the formation and structure of soils and sediments, and how they are described, classified, and analyzed. Coverage includes the geographic distribution of soils and their importance as an environmental resource. (3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours per week.)(Prerequisites: ESCI-1111 or ESCI-1100).

ESCI-2600. Principles of Resource Management
Systems analysis methodologies, scientific theories, ecological approaches, and sustainable resource management principles will be presented to examine the interrelationships governing the availability and cumulative impacts of utilizing both renewable and non-renewable resources. Resource management auditing methods and techniques will be applied for the assessment of several indicators, including carrying capacity, ecological footprints, demographic transition, energy flows, agrosystems, land degradation, air and water quality, deforestation, biodiversity and successional changes. Discussions will also focus on integrative and adaptive resource management techniques and best management practices. (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-2610. Environmental Decision Analysis
Earth systems, including climatic extremes, the industrialized ecosystem; decisions under uncertainty in mineral-resource exploration and development; rational approach to decision making, alternatives to decision analysis; environmental impact assessment and risk management, expert systems approach to environmental problem solving, applications in less developed countries. (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-2620. Environmental Auditing in Mineral Resource Development
Cyclical flow of energy and matter in nature, human interaction with environmental processes, elements of policy analysis; environmental management systems and environmental impact assessment; environmental audit processes, steps in design and delivery; mineral resource development and the audit protocols; from audit to action plan, auditing the audit. (3 lecture hours a week.)

ESCI-2630. Geology and International Development
Aid, international development, and Earth processes; integration of water-resource management, soil conservation and agroforestry; geological hazards in a tropical setting; small-scale mining and conservation of mineral resources; engineering an improved quality of life in developing nations. (May not be taken for credit towards a B.Sc. Degree in in Environmental Science.) (2 lecture hours a week or equivalent.)
    ESCI 2705. Applied Geophysics
    Fundamental physical properties and parameters of matter, including density, conductivity, radioactivity, magnetism, dielectric constant and seismic velocity. Theory and principles of geophysical techniques used to assess and monitor near-surface variations in physical properties, including resistivity imaging, electromagnetic mapping, magnetometry, ground penetrating radar, and seismic imaging. Applications will focus on environmental problems, but may include geological, forensic, and archaeological studies. May be offered as a full-time two-week course during Inter/Summer session, or as a lecture and laboratory course during the Fall semester. (Prerequisite: ESCI 1111.) (MATH 1720/1760 and PHYS 1310/1410 recommended.)

    ESCI-3301. Hydrogeology
    Fundamental physics and properties of groundwater flow in porous geologic material, develops an intuitive, problem-solving approach to hydrogeologic problems. Topics include: groundwater flow equations, flow nets, aquifer pumping, contaminant transport processes, two-phase flow, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids. Computer application will be emphasized. (Prerequisites: ESCI-1100, MATH-1720 (or MATH-1760) or consent of instructor.) (ESCI-2141 is recommended) (2 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

    ESCI-3310. Global Water Crisis
    Examination of the threats to global freshwater resources due to projected human population growth to 2050 and the potential impacts of this growth on water quantity and water quality. Application of the concept of the water, food, energy nexus to demonstrate how water consumption and virtual water transport through international trade of food and energy impact water availability and contribute to water stress to humans and to freshwater ecosystems. The course also examines interactions between water availability, climate change, water pollution, and trends in global consumer demands to address questions about the sustainability of our freshwater resources in the coming decades. (Prerequisite: ESCI-1100.) (3 lecture hours per week.)
      ESCI-3400. Environmental Sedimentology
      Description and analysis of depositional and diagenetic processes, facies, environments and sequences. The impact of natural processes and anthropogenic activities on the nature, production, and accumulation of sediments. Effects of changes in hydrologic reservoirs and fluxes. (3 lecture hours per week, field trips). (Prerequisite: ESCI-2421 or consent of the instructor.)

      ESCI-3411. Structural Geology
      Rock deformation; primary and secondary structures; analysis and classification of folds and faults; interpretation of geologic maps; solution of structural problems. (Prerequisite: ESCI-2411 or consent of instructor.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

      ESCI-3601. Issues in Resource and Environmental Systems
      The complexities and nonlinear feedback mechanisms influencing the dynamic interactions between the allocation and utilization of biotic and abiotic resources in the spatial and temporal domains will be addressed within the conceptual framework of resource management paradigms, theories, and analytical methodologies. Contemporary problems and issues in resource and environmental systems will then be critically assessed, and best management practices will be appraised. (Prerequisites: ESCI-2600 or consent of instructor.) (3 lecture and/or tutorial hours per week.)

      ESCI-3610. Environmental Impact Assessment
      History, theories, and principles of environmental impact assessment (EIA) are examined and various methodologies for EIA preparation are evaluated. Relevant environmental ethics, laws, administrative requirements, and case studies for EIAs in Canada are examined. These principles and methods are applied to preparation of an EIA major project (2 lecture hours and 1 tutorial hour per week) (Prerequisites: ESCI-2141 and ESCI-2421)

      ESCI-3701 Spatial Modelling in GIS
      This course will explore several types of advanced spatialmodels (conceptual, mathematical-statistical, process, and spatial) and how these models are used for decision making in various real-world applications. The modelling approaches that may be explored include: multi-criteria decision analysis, fuzzy logic, network models (routing vs. hydrologic), 3-D and terrain assessment, agent-based modelling and artificial intelligence. These approaches will be applied to both vector and raster formats within a GIS framework. Other topics that will be examined include: model selection, calibration, uncertainty and error identification, sensitivity analysis, and validation procedures. (3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours per week). (Prerequisite: ESCI-2701 and 2711).

      ESCI-3711. Principles of Instrumental Analysis
      The fundamental principles of operation and practical application of modern chemical analytical instrumentation are presented. This course will focus on the acquisition and assessment of qualitative and quantitative chemical data from synthetic, biochemical, and natural materials using instruments and methods that describe the elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition and structure of matter. Topics covered in this course may include atomic and molecular absorption and emission (photoluminescence) spectroscopy, atomic and molecular mass spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, and separation methods such as gas and liquid chromatography. (Prerequisite: CHEM-2200 or consent of instructor; Prerequisite for School of the Environmental Majors: ESCI-2131 or consent of instructor.) (3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours per week.) (Cross-listed with CHEM-3210.)

      ESCI-3721. Environmental Geophysics
      An introduction to the use of seismic, electrical, electromagnetic and other geophysical methods used in near-surface environmental assessment studies. (Prerequisite: ESCI-2101 or consent of instructor) (2 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

      ESCI-3735. Field Methods for Environmental Science
      Introduction to field sampling and measurement techniques for environmental science. Includes physical and chemical characterization of soil/sediment, water, air, and biological samples, and the measurement, evaluation, visualization, and reporting of spatial and temporal data. Designed for Environmental Science students. (Prerequisites: ESCI-1100 and ESCI-2131 or consent of instructor.) Requires student participation in field work or lab work of up to 2 weeks in duration. Course schedule and location may vary with term).

      ESCI-3745. Field Methods for Environmental Studies
      An introduction to field and mapping methods with particular emphasis on vegetation, water, and soil/sediment sampling and analysis. Landform identification. Interpretation of topographic maps, use of compass and GPS units. Observation and assessment of sustainable land use practices. (Prerequisites: ESCI-1120, and ESTU-1100 or consent of instructor.) Requires student participation in field work or lab work of up to 2 weeks in duration. Course schedule and location may vary with term).

      ESCI-3751. Environmental Geochemistry
      Processes such as element and nutrient cycling, and contaminant mobility in near-surface geologic settings. Topics covered will build knowledge of environmental systems by expanding on concepts of chemical phase equilibria, chemical kinetics, and redox reactions in natural systems. The transformation of both natural and anthropogenic chemical compounds will be discussed. Interactions between terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems will be covered and will include legacy and emerging contaminants (e.g., acid mine drainage). (Prerequisite: CHEM-2400 or ESCI-2131) (3 lecture and/or tutorial hours per week.)

      ESCI-3755. Methods in Great Lakes Geomicrobiology
      Field methods used to sample, study and quantify biogeochemical processes across sediment-water environments (wetlands, lakes, and the sediment /water interface) will be emphasised. Attention will focus on microbial field-based water and sediment measurements, as well as sample collection for laboratory determination of fluxes for metals and nutrients. Comparison between stream sediments and suspended particulates will be examined. The course will include an introduction to the ecology of microbially driven redox reactions common in these systems. This course will normally run over two weeks during the summer semester. (Prerequisites: ESCI-1100, ESCI-2131, or consent of instructor.)

      ESCI-3761 Geostatistical Analysis in GIS
      This course will provide comprehensive examination of geostatistical approaches and how they can be incorporated into a spatial and statistical framework to determine how and why spatial distributions and patterns occur between and amongst humans and their environments. The specific geostatistical approaches that will be covered include methods that analyze patterns (spatial autocorrelation, nearest neighbour), map clusters (hot-spot, groupings and outliers), measure geographic distributions, and model spatial relationships (weighted/land use regressions, correlation matrices). (Prerequisites: ESCI-2711 and STATS-2910 or SOSC-2500 (2 lecture, 2 laboratory hours per week)

      ESCI-3801. Scientific Writing and Data Management
      Effective communication is fundamental to society and is particularly important in scientific endeavours. The ability to collect, process, analyze, and interpret data, and then communicate the significance of data to others, is fundamental to the scientific researcher and consultant. Students will develop skills in the written and oral communication of scientific thought through exercises in specific grammatical, writing, data processing, and management techniques. (2 lecture, 1 tutorial and 2 laboratory hours per week.) (Prerequisites: ESCI-1100, STAT-2910 or consent of instructor.)

      ESCI-4301. Contaminant Hydrogeology
      Application of elements of geology, geochemistry, physical chemistry, toxicology, biogeochemistry, and physical hydrogeology toward understanding and quantifying the movement, fate and toxicity of organic and inorganic substances (i.e., contaminants) in environmental systems. Selected topics include site characterization, physicochemical properties of contaminants, human and environmental toxicology, risk assessment, remediation technologies and feasibility, and contaminant transport and attenuation modeling. (2 lecture and 2.5 laboratory/tutorial hours per week.)(Prerequisites: ESCI-2131 and ESCI-3301 or consent of instructor.) (ESCI-3751 is recommended.)

      ESCI-4500. Ecosystem Health
      The fundamental mechanisms and processes that structure ecosystems, anthropogenic activities that can alter them, and the policy and management used to protect them. Through class discussions and case studies, students develop a practical, problem-solving approach to issues associated with ecosystem health. Topics include food web and ecosystem ecology, ecosystem models, anthropogenic stressors, management methods and models, and national and international policies. (3 lecture hours per week.)(Prerequisites: BIOL-2101 and ESCI-1100 or consent of instructor.)

      ESCI-4600. Resource Development and Environmental Impact
      Geochemical processes and environmental impact that may result from the development of natural resources (minerals, hydrocarbons), with special emphasis on the approaches used to extract and develop raw materials, and sustainable strategies to protect the environment. Topics include acid mine drainage, tailings disposal, oil sands development, groundwater contamination, metal toxicity, and an integrative assessment of the role of metals and their influence on biota. (3 lecture hours per week.)(Prerequisites: ESCI-2101, ESCI-2131 and ESCI-3751 or consent of instructor.)

      ESCI-4701. Remote Sensing
      An integrated course dealing with contemporary principles and applications of aerospace remote sensing. Emphasis will be placed on scanning systems; multispectral sensors; the identification and interpretation of spectral signatures; how the imagery obtained by sensors is analyzed optically or digitally to yield Earth resource information; and the manipulation and display of remotely-sensed data. (Prerequisite: ESCI-2111 or ESCI-2121, or consent of instructor.) (2 lecture, 1.5 laboratory hours a week.)

      ESCI-4710. Environmental Site Assessment
      An examination of environmental site assessment (ESA) methods and procedures as applied to greenfield and brownfield properties. Includes: major phases of site characterization and assessment (e.g., Phase I and II ESA, risk assessment, feasibility study, corrective action); applicable North American standards and and regulations; and critical examination of ESA case studies. (2 lecture hours and 1 tutorial hours per week.) (Prerequisites: ESCI-2101 and ESCI-2131, ESCI-3751 is recommended)

      ESCI-4721. Biogeochemistry
      An investigation of global change focusing on the chemical, physical, and biological processes that cycle elements through Earth's systems. Topics covered in this course will include: the role of bacteria in mediating element cycles, the conundrum of the origin of life, microbial impacts on global element cycles, microbe-water-rock interactions (including sorption, oxidation-reduction, methylation of metals, biological degradation of organic molecules). Introduction to molecular biology and isotope techniques to solve environmental problems). (Prerequisites: ESCI-2131) (3 lecture and/or tutorial hours per week.)

      ESCI-4808. Special Topics in Earth and Environmental Sciences
      Selected topics of current interest. (Prerequisite: consent of instructor and a program advisor.) (3 lecture or project hours a week.) (May be repeated for credit if content changes.)

      ESCI-4900. Thesis Research in Environmental Science
      Each student will be required to carry out an original research project in Environmental Science and write a report under the supervision of one or more faculty members. The results of the research will also be presented in a public seminar. Students must consult with an Environmental Science counselor prior to enrolling in this course. (A 6.00 credit, two-semester course.) (Restricted to semester 7 and 8 students with a major average of 70% higher.)

      ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

      ESTU-1100. Humans and the Environment - An Introduction to Environmental Studies
      Humans use energy and resources from our natural surroundings to live, and to develop our societies and cultures. This use has an impact on other animals and plants, and on the air, water, and land. Our impact is now so great that we are in danger of depleting or destroying many of the natural systems on which we depend. This course will examine our relationship with, and impact on, the environment:, with reference to the physical, cultural, economic, political, and ethical elements. Sustainable practices will also be discussed.)Topics may include: human sustainability and population growth, aquatic and terrestrial sustainability, food and agriculture, water resources, energy production, and climate change. (Can be taken as a Social Science option) (Three lecture hours per week)

      ESTU-2100. Canadian Regional Environments
      Canada is a complex and varied nation. The environmental issues that concern each region of the country are also complex and varied. This course surveys the dominant environmental issues and impacts in each region of Canada, and explores the reasons for the regional variation through a variety of lenses: its physical landscape, its resource opportunities and challenges, its historical settlement patterns and economic development, and its social, cultural, and demographic structure. This context is used to develop an understanding of current environmental news and events across the country. (Can be taken as a Social Science option.) (Three lecture hours per week.)

      ESTU-3310. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
      An overview of the 1909 Boundary Water Treaty (BWT) and Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) governing the binational strategy for managing water diversions and water quality of the Laurentian Great Lakes. The course will provide an overview of the history of the agreement and its evolution over various amendments, evaluate major policies and environment programs adopted in Ontario and Canada developed to implement the agreement and demonstrate how the agreement has influenced environmental policy and programs outside of the Great Lakes Basin. The course will also examine the roles of public involvement through various environmental stakeholders and how science shaped the agreement. Case studies documenting historical and recent challenges to the BWT involving diversions of waters outside the Great Lakes, implementation of Remedial Action Plans, Lakewide Management Plans and indicator selection and evaluation will be discussed. (Prerequisite: ESCI-1100 or ESTU-1100 and Semester 3 or above standing, or permission of the instructor.)(3 lecture hours a week.)

      ESTU-3500. The Living Earth: Biogeography and the Biosphere
      Biogeography is the study of the spatial distribution of both plants and animals. This course will examine the nature of populations and communities influenced by geological, geographical, and biological processes and the factors leading to their distribution past and present (Prerequisites: ESTU-1100 or consent of instructor).

      ESTU-4808. Special Topics in Environmental Studies
      Students will examine selected environmental topics of current interest, to meet a demonstrated academic need that cannot be satisfied by regular course offerings. This course may be given as a seminar course, or as a directed, self-study course. (Prerequisite: consent of instructor and program counselor.)(Students may repeat the course for credit if the content changes.)

      ESTU-4900. Research Project in Environmental Studies
      Each student will be required to carry out an original research project in environmental studies and write a report under the supervision of one of more faculty members. The research topic can be in an area relevant to Environmental Studies (e.g., physical geography, sociology, philosophy, political science, etc.) or be interdisciplinary. (Prerequisite: Restricted to students in the BES program with semester 7 or 8 standing, and with a minimum major average of 73%. Students must consult with an Environmental Studies Coordinator and an appropriate faculty supervisor prior to enrolling in the course.) (6.0 credit hour course which counts as two courses, 2 semester course.)

      ESTU-4910. Environmental Research/Leadership Experience
      Students will participate in research and/or leadership training in a field or applied regional, national or international setting, focused on environmental, conservation, and/or sustainability issues. (Prerequisite: permission of program counselor.) (May be repeated for credit if host program or content changes.)
      Several regional, national, and international programs invite students to participate in environmental research or leadership training in environmental settings around the world. Academic credits are granted through a host University, and may be transferred to the University of Windsor via a Letter of Permission, arranged before the program begins. Because enrolment in these programs may be limited, and visa or other immigration documents may be necessary for international programs, students should apply as early as possible. For further information, contact the program counsellor.