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Undergraduate Calendar
Winter 2018

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BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES: COURSES

Students must normally have completed the prerequisites indicated, but under special circumstances may be permitted to take a particular course with the consent of the instructor.
Not all courses listed will necessarily be taught each year. Where enrollment limits are placed on specific courses, students who require these courses as part of their program will be given preference.

55-100. Biology of Organisms
Genetics, energetics, and the diversity of life. Properties of living organisms from the level of the cell through tissues, organs and organ systems, to the functioning, integrated organism. This course is offered on-campus and as a distance course (previously 55-102). (Intended for non-majors and students requiring preparation for 55-140 and 55-141.) (Not counted for credit in any Faculty of Science program.) (2 lecture hours a week.)

55-101. Organisms and the Environment
Organisms interacting with other organisms and with their physical environment. Ecological impacts of human activity. This course is offered on-campus and as a distance course (previously 55-103). (Intended for non-majors and students requiring preparation for 55-140 and 55-141.)(Not counted for credit in any Faculty of Science program.) (2 lecture hours a week.)

55-140. Biological Diversity
Principles governing living systems; the origins and diversity of life; evolution, reproduction, and heredity; the structure and function of viruses through plants and animals; basic principles of ecology. (Grade 12“U” Biology or equivalent, or 55-100 and 55-101 are strongly recommended) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

55-141. Cell Biology
Examination of the principles governing living systems, with emphasis on the molecular and cellular basis of life, molecular genetics, energetics, differentiation, and development. (Grade 12 “U” Biology or equivalent, or 55-100 and 55-101 are strongly recommended) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

55-175. Anatomy and Physiology I
This introductory course will expose the beginning nursing student to the foundations of anatomy and physiology within the context of nursing and health. Review of the systems will incorporate not only the anatomy and physiology of the system, but its relevance and importance to the care of the patient. Practical laboratory work will complement lectures and integrate theory with clinical application and health assessment I. (3 lecture, 2 laboratory hours every other week). (Co-requisite 63-166) (Pre-requisite: Nursing Student) (Cross-listed with 63-175).

55-177. Anatomy and Physiology II
This course is a continuation of Anatomy and Physiology I (63-175/55-175). The nursing student will continue to learn the foundations of anatomy and physiology within the context of nursing and health sciences. Continued review of the systems not covered in Anatomy and Physiology I will incorporate not only the anatomy and physiology of the system, but its relevance and importance to the care of the patient. Practical laboratory work will complement lectures and integrate theory with clinical application and health assessment II. (3 lecture, 2 laboratory hours every other week). (Co-requisite 63-176) (Pre-requisite 63-175 or 55-175). (Cross-listed with 63-177).

55-202. Human Anatomy
Systemic analysis of the structure of the human body, including gross and microscopic morphology. Topics include anatomical terminology and structures of cells, tissues and the major organ systems. Practical laboratory work will complement lectures with emphasis on gross dissection. (Prerequisites: any two first year biology courses.) (3 lecture, 2 laboratory hours a week.)

55-203. Introductory Molecular Biology
Basic introduction to the molecular biology of the cell with emphasis on basic life processes in both plants and animals, including metabolism, energy transformations, transport mechanisms, signal transduction, and other general functions. The major topics covered include: Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression, fundamental aspects of recombinant DNA technology, DNA cloning, hybridization analysis, microarrays, and protein structure and function. (Antirequisite: 55-213; Prerequisite: 55-140 and 55-141) (3 lecture hours or equivalent a week.) (A distance course restricted to graduates of programs in Medical Technology from a College of Applied Arts and Technology with more than 100 hours of certified laboratory experience; or by consent of the instructor.)

55-204. Human Physiology I
Introduction to human physiology: a systems approach. Topics include homeostasis and feedback control, enzymes and energy, membrane transport, metabolism, and the nervous, skeletal muscle, and cardiovascular systems. This course is offered on-campus and a distance course. (Prerequisites: any two first year biology courses.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-205. Human Physiology II
Introduction to human physiology: a systems approach. Topics include respiratory, endocrine, digestive and renal systems, and control of metabolism. (Prerequisite: 55-204 or consent of instructor.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-208. Economic Botany
Earth’s biosphere is the product of plant activity and animal life and is ultimately dependent on plants. This course provides basic plant biology as a background to a discussion of the relationship between humans and plants, particularly economically important plants and their products. Plants used for food, flavours, drugs, stimulants, fuel and/or industrial raw materials will be explored. (Prerequisite: 55-140 and 55-141 or permission of the instructor.) (3 lecture hours.)

55-210. Ecology
Introduction to the fundamental concepts of ecology including factors affecting species distribution, reproductive strategies, population growth and regulation, species interactions, and community level organization and energetics. (Prerequisites: 55-140 and 55-141.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory/discussion hours a week.)

55-211. Genetics
The course reviews transmission genetics and principles of inheritance. The material also includes non-nuclear inheritance and gene linkage, gene expression and regulation, mechanisms and phenotypic effects of DNA mutation and repair, and the principles and applications of population and quantitative genetics. Students will be exposed to molecular genetic techniques such as PCR and DNA sequencing. (Antirequisite: 55-212; Prerequisite: 55-140 and 55-141.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

55-212. Genetics
The course reviews transmission genetics and principles of inheritance. The material also includes non-nuclear inheritance and gene linkage, gene expression and regulation, mechanisms and phenotypic effects of DNA mutation and repair, and the principles and applications of population and quantitative genetics. Students will be exposed to molecular genetic techniques such as PCR and DNA sequencing. This is a distance course designed primarily for graduates of programs in Medical Technology from a College of Applied Arts and Technology. This course may not count as a major requirement for Biology Majors. (Antirequisite: 55-211; prerequisites: 55-140 and 55-141, or the equivalent.) (3 lecture hours or equivalent a week.)

55-213. Introductory Molecular Biology
Basic introduction to the molecular biology of the cell with emphasis on basic life processes in both plants and animals, including metabolism, energy transformations, transport mechanisms, signal transduction, and other general functions. The major topics covered include: Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression, fundamental aspects of recombinant DNA technology, DNA cloning, hybridization analysis, microarrays, and protein structure and function. Practical laboratory work will complement the lectures. (Antirequisite: 55-203; Prerequisite: 55-140, 55-141, and 55-211; suggested Corequisite: 59-261.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours or equivalent a week.)

55-237. Introductory Microbiology
Growth, genetics, structure, physiology, and diversity of microbes and viruses. This course is offered on-campus and as a distance course. (Previously 55-206.) (Prerequisites: any two first year biology courses; Antirequisite: 55-238.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-238. Introductory Microbiology and Techniques
Growth, genetics, structure, physiology, and diversity of microbes and viruses. (Antirequisites: 55-206, 55-237; prerequisites: 55-140 and 55-141.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week including follow-up visits outside scheduled times)

55-258. Principles of Neuroscience
This course is meant to serve as a survey course that will provide familiarity with and an understanding of the basic principles of Neuroscience. The main emphasis will be on the morphology of neural systems, processes of neural signalling and communication, and how such basics relate to sensory processes and behaviour. The main purposes of the course are to provide a background for students interested in, and those taking higher level courses related to the neurosciences. (Prerequisites: 55-140, 55-141, and 55-204 (or 95-205 or 95-260), or permission of instructor.) (3 lecture hours.)

55-310. Environmental Physiology
This course is designed to introduce students to the diversity of adaptations possessed by organisms (including humans) enabling them to successfully interact with and survive in their abiotic/biotic environments. Topics will include overviews of the mechanisms organisms use to balance energetics, homeostasis and metabolism in environments varying in temperature, water availability, resources and oxygen. Descriptions of these systems will be supplemented frequently with the current methods that medical-, field- and laboratory-based researchers use to investigate these physiological adaptations to the environment. (Prerequisite: 55-210 or consent of instructor) (3 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour a week)

55-320. Research Principles and Study Design in Biological Sciences
Introduction to the logic and principles used to develop sound and efficient studies in the biological sciences: generating, testing, and discriminating among hypotheses; dealing with unwanted sources of variation; ; selecting and executing statistical analyses and evaluating their assumptionss and appropriate choice of statistical analysis. Instruction in the use of selected network and personal computer software for data analysis and presentation. (Prerequisites: 55-210, 55-211, 55-213, and 65-205, or consent of instructor.) (3 lecture, 2 laboratory/tutorial hours a week.)

55-323. Animal Behaviour
This course will emphasize the link between organisms and their environment. The thrust of the course will be to understand why different species behave in different ways and why within species there may be individual differences in behaviour. The aim of the course is to derive a basic understanding of how animals have evolved behaviours that aid in survival and reproduction. Students will gain experience by participating in activities throughout the term. (Prerequisites: 55-210, 55-211, and 55-213, or permission of instructor.) (3 lecture hours a week.) (Students cannot receive credit for both 55-425 and 55-323.)

55-325. Population and Community Ecology
This course will examine the ecology of individual populations and the interactions of species within communities. Topics of population ecology will investigate ecological patterns and dynamics, as well as population growth and regulation, linking to processes occurring at lower (individual and within-individual) and higher (species interactions, communities, and ecosystems) levels of biological organization. Topics of community ecology will build upon these same ideas, but by examining the dynamics of assemblages of populations of two or more species co-occurring in the same geographic area. (Prerequisite: 55-210.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-340. Fishes and Fisheries
The fishes are the most diverse, the oldest, and the most abundant group of vertebrates on earth. This course surveys their evolution, their phylogenetic relationships, and their morphological, physiological, behavioural, and ecological adaptations to life in virtually every aquatic environment on earth. The laboratory includes units on gross anatomy of a typical actinopterygian fish, identification of local fauna, study of age and growth, and other selected topics. (Prerequisites: 55-210, 55-211, 55-213.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week) (Students cannot receive credit for both 55-440 and 55-340.)

55-341. Evolution
Topics include the interaction of gene mutation, selection, and population characteristics in the process of evolution, mechanisms of speciation, and current problems in evolution. (Prerequisite: 55-211.) (3 lecture hours and 1 tutorial hour a week.)

55-350. Molecular Cell Biology
An integration of recent findings in molecular and cell biology with those in genomics. The course emphasizes the general behaviour of biological macromolecules and energy transfer mechanisms, leading to in-depth review of the regulation of genome replication and recombination, gene transcription, protein translation, and epigenetic mechanisms governing gene regulation. This course is offered on-campus and as a distance course. (Prerequisites: 55-211 and 55-213, or 55-212 and 55-203 with appropriate laboratory experience and signature of instructor.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-351. Medical Microbiology
Viral and bacterial pathogenesis, including the processes and genetic control of human diseases. This course is offered on-campus and as a distance course (previously 55-241). (Antirequisite: 55-352; Prerequisite: 55-237 or 55-238.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-352. Medical Microbiology and Techniques
Viral and bacterial pathogenesis, including the processes and genetic control of human diseases. (Antirequisite: 55-351; prerequisite: 55-238.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week including follow-up visits outside scheduled lab times.)

55-353. Advanced Cell Biology
This course will examine, at the molecular level, the basic working of a cell; dealing with several aspects of eukaryotic cell biology including intracellular transport, cell-to-cell communication and signal transduction, the cytoskeleton, cell growth and division, apoptosis, cell adhesion and cell migration. In addition to exploring the current state of the field, lecture material will highlight some of the critical experiments in diverse areas of molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry and cell imaging that have contributed to our current understanding. (Prerequisites: 55-211 and 55-213, or 55-212 and 55-203 with appropriate laboratory experience and permission of instructor.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-355. Embryology
Cellular, molecular, and biochemical mechanisms of gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, and organogenesis in a variety of animal systems. A major paper is required. (Prerequisites: 55-211, and 55-213.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-357. Animal Cells and Tissues
The structure and organization of animal systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. Contemporary techniques, including electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and in situ hybridization are discussed. (Prerequisites: 55-211 and 55-213.) (2 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

55-359. Invertebrate Biology
Survey of major classes of the invertebrates from an evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological perspective. Emphasis on the morphological, physiological, and behavioural adaptations that permit animals to exploit the full range of earth's habitats, including the living bodies of other organisms (parasitism). (Prerequisites: 55-210, 55-211, and 55-213.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

55-360. Ornithology
This course gives students a thorough understanding of the biology of birds, with an emphasis on avian ecology, evolution, and behaviour. This course complements Ecology, Evolution, Physiology, Animal Behaviour, and Conservation. Classroom lectures are integrated with laboratory exercises which provides students with hands-on exposure to the topics covered. Students will learn to identify the common birds in the Windsor area. All students are required to participate in a full-day laboratory at Point Pelee and Holiday Beach on a weekend in late September or early October. (Prerequisite: 55-210.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

55-365. Homeostasis and Cell Physiology
This course will explore the amazing variety of signals in the animal body, and how they are sent and received by cells in different tissues to maintain homeostasis. Particular attention will be paid to the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying blood pressure, thermoregulation, circadian rhythms and sleep, metabolism, inflammation and stress, and adult tissue stem cells. This course will focus on how signals are propagated between and within cells of different tissues, and how they relate to animal biology, health and disease. (Prerequisite: 55-213) (3 lecture hours a week)

55-368. Plant Ecology
Evolutionary and community aspects of plant interactions with other organisms and the physical environment. The course deals with plant demography at different levels: individual, population, community, and ecosystem. (Prerequisite: 55-208 and 55-210.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

55-380. Biotechnology Laboratory
This intensive laboratory course will primarily simulate the discovery and rapid protein characterization of genes and gene products. Laboratory experiments will include cutting edge biotechnology techniques and traditional biochemical and molecular biology methodology. For example, DNA/plasmid isolation, cloning, DNA sequencing and analysis, introduction to bioinformatics and microarray technology, characterization of cloned products, protein isolation and characterization, and determination of enzymatic catalysis and regulation will be used to study this enzyme on a genetic and protein level. Other topics include forensic genetics and plant biotechnology. (Prerequisite: 55-213 and 59-261.) (1 tutorial/lecture hour and 6 laboratory hours per week over two terms, 6 credit course.) (Registration priority will be given to students for which this course is a program requirement.)

55-410. Speciation
The course will present an overview of current knowledge, controversy and research directions into the origin of species and will include topics such as species concepts, methods of studying speciation, tempo and modes of speciation, isolation mechanisms, reinforcement, and macroevolution. Background in basic Mendelian genetics, population genetics, evolution, ecology and biological diversity is required. (Prerequisite: 55-341 ) (2 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour a week)

55-420. Undergraduate Research in Biology
Completion of an undergraduate research project, including an oral presentation at an annual colloquium and submission of written final report. (10 laboratory hours a week; offered over two terms.) (A 6.00 credit hour research project which counts as two courses.) (Registration and selection of a supervisor requires the consent of the Department Head) (Prerequisites: major average of 70% and a cumulative average of 60%.)

55-423. Undergraduate Research in Biology
Completion of an undergraduate research project, including an oral presentation at an annual colloquium and submission of written final report. (Registration and selection of supervisor will be completed with consent of the Department Head.) (Restricted to students who have completed 55-420.) (10 laboratory hours a week; offered over two terms.) (A 6.00 credit hour research project which counts as two courses.)

55-426. Animal Communication
This course will cover mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of communication in vertebrates and invertebrates across four signaling modalities: visual, acoustic, chemical, and electrical. The first part of the course will review mechanisms of signal production, transmission through the environment, and perception by signal receivers for each signaling modality. The second part of the course will examine how natural and sexual selection shape the evolution of communication strategies in animals. The approach will be explicitly evolutionary, and will draw from a broad range of disciplines including physics, chemistry, ecology, psychology, and behavioural ecology. (Prerequisite: 55-210.) (3 lecture hours per week. 2 tutorial hours every other week.)

55-430. Pollution Ecology
The transport, fate and effects of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems; food web modelling in the context of pollutant fate; risk assessment. Topics will include toxicokinetics, toxicity testing, and measurements of pollutant stress. (Prerequisites: 55-210 and 55-213.) (3 lecture hours a week, 1 hour week tutorial.)

55-437. Conservation Biology
Principles of conservation biology emphasizing population and biogeographic attributes, including genetics, habitat fragmentation, and island processes, which characterize endangered species and habitats. Case studies of management of threatened species and habitats will be addressed. (Prerequisites: 55-210 and 55-211, or consent of instructor.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-444. Stream Ecology
Physical properties and biotic responses in rivers, including morphometry, energy processing, behavioural adaptations of organisms, and interactions among organisms. (Prerequisite: 55-210.) (3 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week, and a field trip.)

55-445. Limnology
Selected aspects of the ecology of large water masses - large lakes and estuaries. Emphasis on physical properties and chemical dynamics of aquatic systems, and on life history requirements in such systems. (Prerequisite: 55-210 or 55-486.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-448. Neurophysiology
This course will examine the cellular, synaptic, and molecular processes responsible for the functions of the nervous system. Topics will include the generation, transmission, and integration of neural signals. The course will also discuss how functions of the brain in the processing of sensory information, controlling of movement, and generation of complex mental activity are dependent on neural signaling. Modern neurophysiological research methods and their applications in the study of brain function will be discussed. (Prerequisite: 55-258 or permission from the instructor.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-450. Evolutionary Endocrinology
This course will examine the molecular, cellular and organismal processes underlying the functioning of the major vertebrate endocrine systems. Topics will include overviews of the major vertebrate endocrine systems (e.g., reproductive, stress, metabolic, developmental etc.) by integrating recent medical-, field- and laboratory-based experimental research to explore the role of endocrine systems in our lives. The evolutionary role of hormones will be emphasized throughout as a means for medical health practitioners and environmental biologists to appreciate how and why complex endocrine systems are impacted by human-induced changes in the environment. (Prerequisite: 55-210 or consent of instructor) (3 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour a week)

55-453. Biology of Cell Transformation
Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cell transformation and tumor development with emphasis on the role of oncogenes and environmental factors in cell transformation, and on the cellular and molecular biology of malignantly transformed (cancerous) cells, experimental analysis and applications. A major paper and/or seminar is required. (Prerequisites: 55-350 or 55-353, 59-230, 59-261, and consent of instructor.) (3 lecture hours).

55-454. Regenerative Biology and Disease
With the explosion of knowledge from molecular biology and the burgeoning interest in generating or regenerating tissues or organs through various bioengineering or stem cell approaches, this course will explore the phenomenon of regeneration and continual post-natal development from a broad biological perspective. This will involve analysing molecular pathways regulating stem cell differentiation, how specialized cells proliferate and undergo programmed cell death and how the architecture of tissues is preserved despite the constant replacement of old cells by new. We will also discuss how abrogation of these programs underlie a large number of developmental disorders. (Prerequisites: Any 1 course chosen from 55-350, 55-353 or 55-355.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-455. Developmental Signaling and Developmental Genetics
Analysis at the molecular level of the activation and control of genes and proteins during oogenesis and early development in lower and higher eukaryotes. (Prerequisite: Any 2 courses chosen from 55-350, 55-353 or 55-355.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-458. Behavioural Neurobiology
This course will cover the structural, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms in the nervous system that are important for animal natural behaviours. In-depth case studies will be conducted to examine how animals have developed neural mechanisms for solving behavioural problems encountered in their environmental niches. Topics will be related to sensory processing, motor control, and learning and memory. Research methods used in the study of neural mechanisms of behaviour will also be discussed. (Prerequisite: 55-258) (3 lecture hours a week)

55-460. Molecular Biotechnology
Introduction to the techniques and applications of recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. Topics include the generation of transgenic organisms (microbes, plants, and animals) and their impact on agriculture and medicine. The social ramifications of these technologies will be discussed. (Prerequisites: 55-350 or 55-353.) (3 lecture hours a week.)

55-464. Plant Molecular Biology and Physiology
Plant development and its coordination by means of hormones and other molecular signals. Molecular approaches applied to the analysis and modification of plant development will be discussed. (Prerequisite: 55-213.) (2 lecture hours, 1 seminar hour a week.)

55-480 to 55-483. Special Topics in Biology
Selected topics of current interest which may vary from year to year.(May be repeated for credit if content changes.)
The University of Windsor is a member of the Ontario Summer Field Courses Program. Students may select and receive credit for one or more of over thirty field courses under the "Special Topics" designation. Courses are normally advertised in January. Because enrolment is limited, students should apply as early as possible. For further information, contact the Department.
Note: Special Topics in Biology: Epigenetics requires prerequisite: 55-350 or 55-353.

55-485. Excitable Cells
A systemic view of regulation in the nervous system. Physiological control mechanisms at the levels of molecules through cells, neural circuits and neural muscular regulation are discussed and investigated. (Prerequisites: 55-213 and 55-258.) (2 lecture, 3 laboratory hours a week.)

55-486. Great Lakes Field Biology
The physical, chemical, and biological properties of the Great Lakes system; measures of transport and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems and food webs; changes in species abundance, composition, and distributions. Field work stresses sampling techniques and measurements of temporal and spatial variation. Students are required to complete a project and present a seminar. (Antirequisite: 55-234; Prerequisites: 55-210 and 65-205, or consent of instructor.) (2 weeks, Intersession; 26 hours lecture, 52 hours field/laboratory work, 8 hours seminar.)

55-487. Field Course in Tropical Ecology
This two-week field course is a hands-on exploration of the flora and fauna of the tropics with an emphasis on ecology, behaviour, evolutionary adaptations, and community relationships. The course is normally held in Costa Rica but may occasionally be offered at other sites in the Neotropics. Field research will include identifying birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and plants; studying the ecology of neotropical animals in multiple ecosystems; capturing and banding birds; monitoring the social behaviour of monkeys; observing army ants, leaf-cutter ants, termites, ant/acacia mutualisms; and assessing different conservation practices. The course consists of field excursions, lectures, and data collection for independent projects. Project reports are submitted within one month of the completion of the course field component. The course will usually take place during the Winter Study Week and one week before or after. (Pre-requisite: 55-210 and permission of instructor)

55-492. Epigenetics
This course will examine our current understanding of “Epigenetics”, the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. Epigenetics is an area under intensive scientific investigation. The goal of the course is to provide an introduction to the fundamentals of epigenetic control along with an understanding of the interplay between epigenetics and disease, health, behaviour, and the environment. (Prerequisite: 55-350 or 55-353)