The Sale Lab

Table of Contents
New Book on the Crisis
The Lab and The Blog
Targeted Research Project
Coastal Zone management in the Arabian Gulf

Biological Sciences
University of Windsor
1047 Brandy Crest Road,

Port Carling, Ontario

FAX: 1-705-764-3360


The following is a comprehensive list of publications from the Sale lab, from its present virtual form back to its physical forms in Windsor, Durham NH, and Sydney, Australia, and even back to my student days in Hawaii and U Toronto. Papers are listed reverse chronologically, and alphabetically by author within years. Books, book chapters, gray literature and peer-reviewed papers are merged to one list.

Since I seldom co-authored the publications resulting from theses of graduate students, believing they should get full credit, the list includes a number of papers that are from my lab but do not include me as an author. I publish jointly with students and ex-students on collaborative projects outside their thesis studies. I take first author only for papers I write.

COPIES OF ARTICLES: Copyright issues prevent me posting links to pdf versions. Like most authors, I will provide pdf on request if you do not have access to the journal.

Kritzer, J., C. Hicks, B. Mapstone, F. Pina, and P. Sale, 2014. Ecosystem-based Management of Coral Reefs and Interconnected Nearshore Tropical Habitats. In: The Sea, Volume 16, Marine Ecosystem-based Management, edited by Michael J. Fogarty and James J. McCarthy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA USA, ISBN 978-0-674-07270-1, pp. 369-428.

Sale, P.F. 2013. The futures of coral reefs. In: Klaus Rohde (ed), The Balance of Nature and Human Impact, Cambridge University Press, in press.

Sale, Peter F. 2013. Older, but less wise. Nature 493: 167-168.

Hogan, J. Derek, Roger J. Theissen, Peter F. Sale, and Daniel D. Heath, 2012. Local retention, dispersal and fluctuating connectivity among populations of a coral reef fish. Oecologia 168: 61-71 DOI 10.1007/s00442-011-2058-1

Sale, P.F. and Szmant, A.M. (eds). 2012. Reef reminiscences: ratcheting back the shifted baselines concerning what reefs used to be. United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 35 pp.

Burt J, Feary, D., Bauman, A., Usseglio, P., Cavalcante, G., Sale, P. 2011. Biogeographic patterns of reef fish community structure in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 1875-1883.

Sale, Peter F. 2011. Our Dying Planet. An ecologist's view of the crisis we face. Univ. California Press, Berkeley, 339 pp.

Mora, Camilo, and Peter F. Sale, 2011. Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 434: 251-266.

Mumby, P.J., R. Iglesias-Prieto, A.J Hooten, P.F. Sale, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, A.J. Edwards, C.D. Harvell, E.D. Gomez, N. Knowlton, M.E. Hatziolos, M.S. Kyewalyanga, and N. Muthiga, 2011. Revisiting climate thresholds and ecosystem collapse. Frontiers in Ecology 9: 94-96.

Burt, John, Aaron Bartholomew, and Peter F. Sale, 2011. Benthic development on large-scale engineered reefs: a comparison of communities among breakwaters of different age and natural reefs. Ecological Engineering 37: 191-198.

Sale, Peter F., David A. Feary, John A. Burt, Andrew G. Bauman, Geˇrgenes H. Cavalcante, Kenneth G. Drouillard, Bj÷rn Kjerfve, Elise Marquis, Charles G. Trick, Paolo Usseglio, Hanneke Van Lavieren, 2011. The Growing Need for Sustainable Ecological Management of Marine Communities of the Persian Gulf. Ambio 40: 4-17. DOI 10.1007/s13280-010-0092-6

Van Lavieren, H., J. Burt, D.A. Feary, G. Cavalcante, E. Marquis, L. Benedetti, C. Trick, B. Kjerfve, and P.F. Sale, 2011. Managing the Growing Impacts of Development on Fragile Coastal and Marine Ecosystems: Lessons from the Gulf. A Policy Report. UNU-INWEH, Hamilton, Canada, 82pp.

Feary, D.A., J.A. Burt, A.G. Bauman, P. Usseglio, P.F. Sale, G.H. Cavalcante, 2010. Fish communities on the world’s warmest reefs: what can they tell us about the effects of climate change in the future? Journal of Fish Biology 77: 1931-1947. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02777.x

Burt, John, David Feary, Paolo Usseglio, Andrew Bauman and Peter F Sale, 2010. The influence of wave exposure on coral community development on man-made breakwater reefs, with a comparison to a natural reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 86: 839-859.

Hogan, J. Derek, Roger J. Thiessen, and Daniel D. Heath, 2010. Variability in connectivity indicated by chaotic genetic patchiness within and among populations of a marine fish. Marine Ecology Progress Series 417: 263-275. doi: 10.3354/meps08793

Sale, P.F., H. Van Lavieren, M.C. Ablan Lagman, J. Atema, M. Butler, C. Fauvelot, J.D. Hogan, G.P. Jones, K.C. Lindeman, C.B. Paris, R.S. Steneck, and H.L. Stewart, 2010. Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers, Connectivity Working Group, Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program, UNU-INWEH, 78pp.

Burt, John, Aaron Bartholomew, Andrew Bauman, Abdulla Saif, and Peter F. Sale, 2009. Coral recruitment and early benthic community development on several materials used in the construction of artificial reefs and breakwaters. J. Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 373: 72-78.

Burt, J, Bartholomew, A, Usseglio, P, Bauman, A, and P.F. Sale, 2009. Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural reefs for corals and fish in Dubai, United Arab Emirates? Coral Reefs 28:663-675.

Hepburn, R.I., P.F. Sale, B. Dixon and Daniel D. Heath, 2009. Genetic structure of juvenile cohorts of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) along the Mesoamerican barrier reef: chaos through time. Coral Reefs 28: 277-288.

Jones, G.P., G.R. Russ, P.F. Sale and R.S. Steneck, 2009. Theme section on “Larval connectivity, resilience and the future of coral reefs”. Coral Reefs 28: 303-305.

Jones, G.P., G.R. Almany, G.R. Russ, P.F. Sale, R.S. Steneck, M.J.H. van Oppen and B.L. Willis, 2009. Larval retention and connectivity among populations of corals and reef fishes: history, advances and challenges. Coral Reefs 28: 307-325.

Steneck, R.S., C.B. Paris, S.N. Arnold, M.C. Ablan-Lagman, A.C. Alcala, M.J. Butler, L.J. McCook, G.R. Russ and P.F. Sale, 2009. Thinking and managing outside the box: coalescing connectivity networks to build region-wide resilience in coral reef ecosystems. Coral Reefs 28: 367-378.

McCook, L.J., G.R. Almany, M.L. Berumen, J.C. Day, A.L. Green, G.P. Jones, J.M. Leis, S. Planes, G.R. Russ, P.F. Sale and S.R. Thorrold, 2009. Management under uncertainty: guide-lines for incorporating connectivity into the protection of coral reefs. Coral Reefs 28: 353-366.

Burt, J., A. Bartholomew and P. Usseglio, 2008. Recovery of corals a decade after a bleaching event in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Marine Biology 154: 27-36.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P.J. Mumby, A.J. Hooten, R.S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, D.R. Harvell, P.F. Sale, A.J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C.M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R.H. Bradbury, A. Dubi, and M.E. Hatziolos, 2008. Coral adaptation in the face of climate change. Science 320: 315-316.

Sale, Peter F., 2008. Management of coral reefs: Where we have gone wrong and what we can do about it. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 805-809.

Sale, P.F, and J.P. Kritzer. 2008. Connectivity: What it is, how it is measured, and why it is important for management of reef fishes. In: R. Grober-Dunsmore and B.D. Keller, (eds), Caribbean connectivity: Implications for marine protected area management. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series ONMS-08-07. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Silver Spring, MD. Pages 12-26

Sale, P.F., M.J. Butler IV, A.J. Hooten, J.P. Kritzer, K.C. Lindeman, Y.J. Sadovy de Mitcheson, R.S. Steneck, and H. Van Lavieren, 2008. Stemming Decline of the Coastal Ocean: Rethinking Environmental Management, UNU-INWEH, Hamilton, Canada, 43pp.

Fisher, R. and J.D. Hogan. 2007. Morphological predictors of swimming speed: a case study of pre-settlement juvenile coral reef fish. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210: 2436-2433.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P.J., Hooten, A. J., Steneck, R.S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, D. R, Sale, P.F., Edwards, A.J., Caldeira, K., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C. M., Iglesias-Prieto, R., Muthiga, N., Bradbury, R.H., Dubi, A., and Hatziolos, M. E., 2007. The Carbon Crisis: Coral Reefs under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science 318: 1737-1742.

Hogan, J.D., R. Fisher and C. Nolan. 2007. Critical Swimming Speed of Settlement-Stage Coral Reef Fishes from The Caribbean: A methodological and geographical comparison. Bulletin of Marine Science, 80: 219-231.

Sale, P.F., 2007. Parasites and passerines tell different tales. Conservation Biology 21: 281-282 (book review).

Chittaro PM, Gagnon J, Fryer BJ 2006 The differentiation of Stegastes partitus populations using lapillar and sagittal otolith chemistry. Journal of Fish Biology 68:1909-1917.

Chittaro, P.M., J.D. Hogan, J. Gagnon, B.J. Fryer and P.F. Sale, 2006. In situ experiment of ontogenetic variability in the otolith chemistry of Stegastes partitus. Marine Biology 149: 1227-1235.

Chittaro PM, Usseglio P, Fryer BJ, Sale PF, 2006. Spatial variation in otolith chemistry of Lutjanus apodus at Turneffe Atoll, Belize, Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 67: 673-680.

Kritzer, J.P. and P.F. Sale (eds.) 2006. Marine Metapopulations. Academic Press, San Diego. 544pp.

Kritzer, Jacob P., and Peter F. Sale, 2006. The metapopulation ecology of coral reef fishes. In: Kritzer, J.P. and P.F. Sale (eds.), Marine Metapopulations. Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 31-67.

Kritzer, Jacob P., and Peter F. Sale, 2006. The future of metapopulation science in marine ecology. In: Kritzer, J.P. and P.F. Sale (eds.), Marine Metapopulations. Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 517-529.

Sale, Peter F., Ilkka Hanski, and Jacob P. Kritzer, 2006. The merging of metapopulation theory and marine ecology: Establishing the historical context, In: Kritzer, J.P. and P.F. Sale (eds.), Marine Metapopulations. Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 3-28.

Tang LQ, Sheng JY, Hatcher BG, Sale PF, 2006. Numerical study of circulation, dispersion, and hydrodynamic connectivity of surface waters on the Belize shelf, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111 (C1) Art. No. C01003 Jan 12, 2006

Chittaro, P.M., Usseglio, P., Fryer, B.J., Sale, P.F. 2005. Using otolith microchemistry of Haemulon flavolineatum (French Grunt) to characterize mangroves and coral reefs throughout Turneffe Atoll, Belize: Difficulties at small spatial scales. Estuaries 28: 373-381.

Chittaro, P.M., P. Usselio, and P.F. Sale, 2005. Variation in fish density, assemblage composition and relative rates of predation among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72: 175-187.

Hogan, J. Derek, and Camilo Mora, 2005. Experimental analysis of the contribution of swimming and drifting to the displacement of reef fish larvae. Marine Biology 147: 1213-1220.

Jones, K.M.M. 2005. Home range areas and activity centres in six species of Caribbean wrasses (Labridae). J. Fish Biol. 66: 150-166.

Mora, Camilo, and D.Ross Robertson, 2005. Factors shaping the range-size frequency distribution of the endemic fish fauna of the Tropical Eastern Pacific. J. Biogeogr. 32: 277-286.

Planes, S., R. Galzin, J.-P. Bablet, and P.F. Sale, 2005. Stability of coral reef fish assemblages impacted by nuclear tests. Ecology 86: 2578-2585.

Sale, P.F., B.S. Danilowicz, P.J. Doherty, and D.McB. Williams 2005. The relation of microhabitat to variation in recruitment of young-of-year coral reef fishes. Bulletin of Marine Science 76: 123-142.

Sale, P.F., Cowen, R.K., Danilowicz, B.S., Jones, G.P., Kritzer, J.P., Lindeman, K.C., Planes, S., Polunin, N.V.C., Russ, G.R., Sadovy, Y.J., and R.S. Steneck, 2005. Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 74-80.

Chittaro, P.M., B.J. Fryer, and P.F. Sale, 2004. Discrimination of French grunts (Haemulon flavolineatum, Desmarest, 1823) from mangrove and coral reef habitats using otolith microchemistry. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 308, 169-183.

Fitzgerald, D.G., D.F. Clapp, and B.J. Belonger, 2004. Characterization of growth and winter survival of age-0 yellow perch in southeastern Lake Michigan. J. Great Lakes Res, 30: 227-240.

Hedges, K.J., Ludsin, S.A. and Fryer, B.J. 2004. Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry. Journal of Fish Biology 64: 923-937

Kritzer, J.P. 2004. Effects of noncompliance on the success of alternative designs of marine protected area networks for conservation and fisheries management. Conservation Biology 18: 1021-1031.

Kritzer, J.P. 2004. Sex-specific growth and mortality, spawning season, and female maturation of the stripey bass (Lutjanus carponotatus) on the Great Barrier Reef. Fishery Bull. 102: 94-107.

Kritzer JP, and P.F. Sale, 2004. Metapopulation ecology in the sea: from Levins’ model to marine ecology and fisheries science. Fish and Fisheries 5: 131-140.

Ospina, A.F., and Camilo Mora 2004. Effect of body size on reef fish tolerance to extreme low and high temperatures. Envir. Biol. Fish. 70: 339-343.

Sale, Peter F. 2004. Connectivity, recruitment variation, and the structure of reef fish communities. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44: 390-399.

Sale, Peter F., and Jacob P. Kritzer, 2003. Determining the extent and spatial scale of population connectivity: decapods and coral reef fishes compared. Fisheries Research 65: 153-172.

Chittaro, P.M., and P.F. Sale, 2003. Structure of patch-reef assemblages at St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, and One Tree Reef, Australia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 249: 277-287.

Hatcher, B.G., P.F. Sale, P. Usseglio, and J.E. Arias Gonzales, 2003. Recommendations on Methodology for Monitoring the Effectiveness of MPA Management. Report to MBRS PCU, unpub. Final Report to MBRS Project, Belize, 55pp.

Mora, C., P.M. Chittaro, P.F. Sale, J.P. Kritzer and S.A. Ludsin, 2003. Patterns and processes in reef fish diversity. Nature 421: 933-936.

Sale, Peter F., and Stuart A. Ludsin, 2003. The Extent and Spatial Scale of Connectivity among Reef Fish Populations: Implications for Marine Protected Areas Designated for Fisheries Enhancement. Gulf and Caribbean Research 14 (2): in press.

Chittaro, P.M. 2002. Species-area relationships for coral reef fish assemblages of St.Croix, US Virgin Islands. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233:253-261.

Danilowicz, B.S., N. Tolimieri and P.F. Sale, 2002. Meso-scale habitat features affect recruitment of reef fishes in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69: 1223-1232.

Fitzgerald, D.G., Nanson, J.W., Todd, T.N. and Davis, B.M. 2002. Application of truss analysis for the quantification of changes in fish condition. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 9: 115-125.

Jones, K.Martha M., 2002. Behavioural overlap in six Caribbean labrid species: intra- and interspecific similarities. Env. Biol. Fish. 65: 1-11.

Jones, K.M.M., D.G. Fitzgerald, and P.F. Sale, 2002. Comparative ecology of Marine Fish Communities, In: Hart, P.J.B., and J.R. Reynolds (eds.), Handbook of Fish and Fisheries, Volume 1., Blackwell, London, pp. 341-358.

Kritzer, J.P., 2002. Stock structure, mortality and growth of the decorated goby, Istigobius decoratus (Gobiidae), at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Env. Biol. Fish. 63: 211-216.

Mora, Camilo, and Peter F. Sale, 2002. Are populations of coral reef fish open or closed? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17 (9).

Sale, Peter F. 2002. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs: What has the last decade taught us? Fisheries Science 68 Suppl. 1: 113-118.

Sale, P.F. (ed.) 2002. Coral Reef Fishes. Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego, 549pp.

Sale, P.F. 2002. The science we need to develop for more effective management. In: Sale, P.F., (ed.) Coral Reef Fishes. Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 361-376.

Sale, P.F., J.P. Kritzer, and J.E. Arias Gonzales 2002a. Current Status of Environmental Knowledge, and Environmental Monitoring Activities in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Region, with particular reference to Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. Report to MBRS PCU, unpub. Report to MBRS Project, Belize, 23pp.

Sale, P.F., J.P. Kritzer, and J.E. Arias Gonzales 2002b. Recommendations for a Synoptic Monitoring Program in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Region. Second Regional Report on Coral Reef Ecology to MBRS/SAM PCU, unpub. Final Report to MBRS Project, Belize, 48pp.

Fitzgerald, D.G., A.R. Dale, M.V. Thomas, and P.F. Sale, 2001. Application of otolith analyses to investigate broad size distributions of young yellow perch in temperate lakes. J. Fish Biol. 58: 248-263.

Kritzer, J.P., C.R. Davies and B.D. Mapstone 2001. Characterizing fish populations: effects of sample size and population structure on the precision of demographic parameter estimates. Can. J. Fish. Aq. Sci. 58: 1557-1568.

Ludsin, S.A., and A.D. Wolfe 2001. Biological invasion theory: Darwin’s contributions from The Origin of Species. BioScience 51: 780-789.

Levin, P.S., N. Tolimieri, M. Nicklin and P.F. Sale, 2000. Integrating individual behavior and population ecology: the potential for habitat-dependent population regulation in a reef fish. Behav. Ecol. 11: 565-571.

Sale, P.F. 2000. Report on site visit to Abu Dhabi, 19-23 March, 2000. Unpublished report to UNU-INWEH. 5 page report on site visit and 10 page draft proposal.

Sale, P.F., and N. Tolimieri, 2000. Density dependence at some time and place? Oecologia 124: 166-171.

Fitzgerald, D.G., Nanson, J.W., Todd, T.N. and Davis, B.M. 2000. Truss analysis: building a bridge between taxonomy and toxicology. SETAC Globe 1:1:39-40.

Danilowicz, B.S., and P.F. Sale, 1999. Modelling settlement in open populations of reef fishes. Ecol. Model. 121: 261-276.

Danilowicz, B.S., and P.F. Sale 1999. Relative predation intensity on the French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum, during diurnal, crepuscular, and nocturnal periods on a coral reef.. Mar. Biol. 133: 337-343.

Ganger, M.T. 1999. The spatial and temporal distribution of young-of-the-year Osmerus mordax in the Great Bay Estuary. Env. Biol. Fish. 54: 253-261.

Sale, P.F. 1999. Recruitment in space and time. Nature 397: 25-26.

Sale, P.F., E.A. Chavez, B.G. Hatcher, C. Mayfield, J.J.H. Ciborowski. 1999. Guidelines for developing a regional monitoring and environmental information system. Unpubl. Final Report to the World Bank. 105pp

Fitzgerald, D.G. 1998. The power of information technology to assist fisheries researchers in North America. Fisheries 23:1:31-31.

Nemeth, R.S. 1998. The effect of natural variation in substrate architecture on the survival of juvenile bicolor damselfish. Env. Biol. Fish 53: 129-141.

Risk, A. 1998. The effects of interactions with reef residents on the settlement and subsequent persistence of ocean surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus. Env. Biol. Fish. 51: 377-389.

Sale, P.F. 1998. Appropriate spatial scales for studies of reef fish ecology. Australian J. Ecol., 23: 202-208.

Sale, P.F., and R.K. Cowen, 1998. Fishery and reef management. Science 279: 2022.

Tolimieri, N. 1998. Contrasting effects of microhabitat use on large-scale adult abundance in two families of Caribbean reef fishes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 167: 227-239.

Tolimieri, N. 1998. Effects of substrata, resident conspecifics and damselfish on the settlement and recruitment of the stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride. Env. Biol. Fish. 53: 393-404.

Tolimieri, N. 1998. The relationship among microhabitat characteristics, recruitment, and adult abundance in the stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride, at three spatial scales. Bull. Mar. Sci. 62: 253-268.

Tolimieri, N., P.F. Sale, R. Nemeth and K.B. Gestring, 1998. Replenishment of populations of Caribbean reef fishes: are spatial patterns consistent through time? J. exp. mar. biol. ecol. 230: 55-71.

Danilowicz, B.S. 1997. A potential mechanism for episodic recruitment of a coral reef fish. Ecology 78: 1415-1423.

Danilowicz, B.S. 1997. The effects of age and size on habitat selection during settlement of a damselfish. Env. Biol. Fishes 50: 257-265.

Masterson, C., B.S. Danilowicz and P.F. Sale 1997. Yearly and inter-island variation in the recruitment dynamics of the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum. J. exp. mar. biol. ecol. 214: 149-166.

Nemeth, R.S. 1997. Spatial patterns of bicolor damselfish populations in Jamaica and St. Croix are determined by similar post-settlement processes. Proc. 8th Intern. Coral Reef Symp. 1: 1017-1022.

Risk, A. 1997. Effects of habitat on the settlement and post-settlement success of the ocean surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161: 51-59.

Sale, P.F. 1997. Visual census of fishes: How well do we see what is there? Proceedings, 8th Internat. Coral Reef Symposium, 2: 1435-1440.

Sale, P.F. 1997. Managing coral reef fisheries: How to do a needed job far better. Trends in Ecol. Evol. 12: 80-81. (Book review).

Danilowicz, B.S. 1996. Choice of coral species by naive and field-caught damselfish Copeia 1996: 735-739.

Sale, P.F. 1996. Structure and dynamics of reef fish communities: a biogeographic comparison. In: Cody, M.L., and J.A. Smallwood, eds., Long term studies of vertebrate communities, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 73-97.

Danilowicz, B.S. 1995. The role of temperature in spawning of the damselfish Dascyllus aruanus. Bull. Mar. Sci. 57: 624-636.

Danilowicz, B.S. 1995. Spatial patterns of spawning in the coral-reef damselfish Dascyllus aruanus. Marine Biology 122: 145-155.

Forrester, G.E. 1995. Strong density-dependent survival and recruitment regulate the abundance of a coral reef fish. Oecologia 103: 275-282.

Forrester, G.E. 1995. Diel patterns of drift by five species of mayfly at different levels of fish predation. Can. J. Fish. Aq. Sci. 51: 2549-2557.

Tolimieri, N. 1995. Effects of microhabitat characteristics on the settlement and recruitment of a coral reef fish at two spatial scales. Oecologia 102: 52-63.

Douglas, P.J., G.E. Forrester and S.D. Cooper. 1994. Effects of trout on the diel periodicity of drifting baetid mayflies. Oecologia 98: 48-56.

Forrester, G.E., J.G. Chace, and W. McCarthy, 1994. Diel and density-related changes in feeding and prey selection by brook charr in a New Hampshire stream. Env. Biol. Fish. 39: 310-311.

Forrester, G.E. 1994. Influences of predatory fish on the drift dispersal and local density of stream insects. Ecology 75: 1208-1218.

Levin, P.S. 1994. Fine-scale variation in recruitment of a temperate demersal fish: the importance of settlement versus post-settlement loss. Oecologia 97: 124-133.

Levin, P.S. 1994. Small-scale recruitment variation in a temperate fish: the roles of macrophytes and food supply. Env. Biol. Fish. 40: 271-281.

Sale, P.F. 1994. Webs and scales: Physical and ecological processes in marine fish recruitment. Books in fishery oceanography. Quart. Rev. Biol. 69: 538. (book review).

Sale, P.F. 1994. Taxonomy and coral reef ecology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 9: 398.

Sale, P.F., J.A. Guy, and W.J. Steel, 1994. Ecological structure of assemblages of coral reef fishes on isolated patch reefs. Oecologia 98: 83-99.

Sale, P.F., G.E. Forrester, and P.S. Levin, 1994. The fishes of coral reefs -- ecology and management. National Geographic Research and Exploration 10: 224-235.

Levin, P.S. 1993. Habitat structure, conspecific presence and spatial variation in the recruitment of a temperate reef fish. Oecologia 94: 176-185.

Jones, G.P., D.J. Ferrell and P.F. Sale 1992. Fish feeding and dynamics of soft-sediment mollusc populations in a coral reef lagoon. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 80: 175-190.

Lambert, W.J., P.S. Levin, and J. Berman, 1992. Changes in the structure of a New England (USA) kelp bed: the effects of an introduced species? Mar. Ecol. Prog, Ser. 88: 303-307.

Sale, P.F. 1992. Dubinsky, Z. [Ed.] 1990. Coral reefs. Ecosystems of the World. V. 25. Elsevier Sci. Publ., Amsterdam. 550p. $220. ISBN 0-444-87392-9. Limnol. Oceanogr. 37: 915. (Book Review).

Sale, P.F., and J.A. Guy, 1992. Persistence of community structure: What happens when you change taxonomic scale? Coral Reefs, 11: 147-154.

Forrester, G.E. 1991. Social rank, individual size and group composition as determinants of food consumption by humbug damselfish, Dascyllus aruanus. Anim. Behav. 42: 701-711.

Fowler, A.J. 1991. Reproductive biology of bisexual and all-female populations of chaetodontid fishes from the southern Great Barrier Reef. Env. Biol. Fish. 31: 261-274.

Jones, G.P., D.J. Ferrell, and P.F. Sale, 1991. Fish predation and its impact on the invertebrates of coral reefs and adjacent sediments. In: Sale, P.F., ed. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Academic Press, New York. pp. 156-179.

Levin, P.S. 1991. Effects of microhabitat on recruitment variation in a Gulf of Maine reef fish. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 75: 183-189.

Levin, P.S., and A.C. Mathieson, 1991. Variation in host-epiphyte relationship along a wave exposure gradient. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77: 271-278.

Sale, P.F. 1991. The assembly of reef fish communities: open non-equilibrial systems. In: Sale, P.F., ed. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Academic Press, New York. pp. 564-598.

Sale, P.F. 1991. Introduction. In: Sale, P.F., ed. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Academic Press, New York. pp. 3-15.

Sale, P.F., ed. 1991. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Academic Press, New York. 754pp.

Sale, P.F. 1991. Habitat structure and recruitment in coral reef fishes. In: Habitat structure: The physical arrangement of objects in space. (Bell, S.S., E.D. McCoy, and H.R. Mushinsky, eds.). Chapman and Hall pp. 197-210.

Forrester, G.E. 1990. Factors influencing the juvenile demography of a coral reef fish. Ecology 71: 1666-1681.

Fowler, A.J. 1990. Spatial and temporal patterns of distribution and abundance of chaetodontid fishes at One Tree Reef, southern GBR. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 64: 39-53.

Jones, G.P. 1990. The importance of recruitment to the dynamics of a coral reef fish population. Ecology 71: 1691-1698.

Jones, G.P., D.J. Ferrell, and P.F. Sale. 1990. Spatial pattern in the abundance and structure of mollusc populations in the soft sediments of a coral reef lagoon. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 62:109-120.

Sale, P.F. 1990. Reply from Peter Sale. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 5: 231.

Sale, P.F. 1990. Recruitment of marine species: Is the bandwagon rolling in the right direction? Trends. Ecol. Evol. 5:25-27.

Fowler, A.J. 1989. Description, interpretation and use of the microstructure of otoliths from juvenile butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae). Mar. Biol. 102: 167-187.

St. John, J., G.P. Jones and P.F. Sale. 1989. Distribution and abundance of soft-sediment meiofauna and a predatory goby in a coral reef lagoon. Coral Reefs 8:51-57.

Sale, P.F. 1989. Symbiosis as an all-inclusive concept. (Book Review). Env. Biol. Fish. 26:77-78.

Sale, P.F. and D.J. Ferrell. 1989. Early survivorship of juvenile coral reef fishes. Coral Reefs 7:117-124.

Sale, P.F., and W.J. Steel. 1989. Temporal variability in patterns of association among fish species on coral patch reefs. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 51:35-47.

Jones, G.P. 1988. Experimental evaluation of the effects of habitat structure and competitive interactions on the juveniles of two coral reef fishes. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 123: 115-126.

Jones, G.P., P.F. Sale, and D.J. Ferrell. 1988. Do large carnivorous fish affect the ecology of macrofauna in shallow lagoonal sediments?: A pilot experiment. Sixth Internat. Coral Reef Symp., Townsville, Proc. 2:77-82.

Lincoln Smith, M.P. 1988. Effects of observer swimming speed on sample counts of temperate rocky reef fish assemblages. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 43: 223-231.

Mapstone, B.D., and A.J. Fowler, 1988. Recruitment and the structure of assemblages of fish on coral reefs. Trends Ecol. Evol. 3: 72-77.

Sale, P.F. 1988. Tropical Fish Ecology. Ecological studies in tropical fish communities. (Book Review). Trends Ecol. Evol. 3:27-28.

Sale, P.F. 1988. Diversity of the tropics: Causes of high diversity in reef fish systems. In: Vertebrates in Complex Tropical Systems. (M.L. Harmelin-Vivien and F. Bourliere, eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 1-20.

Sale, P.F. 1988. What coral reefs can teach us about ecology. Plenary Address, 6th Internat. Coral Reef Symposium, Townsville, Proc. 1:19-27.

Sale, P.F. 1988. Perception, pattern, chance and the structure of reef fish communities. Env. Biol. Fish. 21:3-15.

Andrew, N.L., and B.D. Mapstone, 1987. Sampling and the description of spatial pattern in marine ecology. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 25: 39-90.

Eckert, G.J. 1987. Estimates of adult and juvenile mortality for labrid fishes at One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Mar. Biol. 95: 167-171.

Fowler, A.J. 1987. The development of sampling strategies for population studies of coral reef fishes. A case-study. Coral Reefs 6: 49-58.

Jones, G.P. 1987. Some interactions between residents and recruits in two coral reef fishes. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 114: 169-182.

Jones, G.P. 1987. Competitive interactions among adults and juveniles in a coral reef fish. Ecology 68: 1534-1547.

Doherty, P.J. and P.F. Sale. 1986. Predation on juvenile coral reef fishes: An exclusion experiment. Coral Reefs 4:225-234.

Jones, G.P. 1986. Food availability affects growth in a coral reef fish. Oecologia 70: 136-139.

Jones, G.P., and M.D. Norman, 1986. Feeding selectivity in relation to territory size in the herbivorous reef fish Parma victoriae. Oecologia 68:549-556.

McFarland, D.C. and P.F. Sale. 1986. Behaviour and ecology of two species of honey eaters. Corella 10:37-45.

Sale, P.F. 1986. Ecology -- a behavioural perspective. In: A Natural Legacy. Ecology in Australia, 2nd Edition. Recher, H.F., D. Lunney, and I. Dunn (eds.), Pergamon, Sydney, pp. 218-234.

Sale, P.F. 1986. A review of the Marine Science and Technologies Grants Scheme. 45p unpubl. rept., following public comment, amended and printed as 65p document sent by AMSTAC to the Australian Government in July 1986.

Sale, P.F., and W.J. Steel. 1986. Random placement and the structure of reef fish communities. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 28:165-174.

Sale, P.F., G.J. Eckert, D.J. Ferrell, A.J. Fowler, T.A. Jones, B.D. Mapstone, and W.J. Steel. 1986. Demography of selected aquarium fishes and implications for the management of their collection. Unpubl. Final Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. 50pp

Schmitt, P.D. 1986. Feeding by larvae of Hypoatherina tropicalis (Pisces: Atherinidae) and its relation to prey availability in One Tree Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Envir. Biol. Fish. 16: 79-94.

Doherty, P.J., D.McB. Williams, and P.F. Sale. 1985. The adaptive significance of larval dispersal in coral reef fishes. Env. Biol. Fish. 12:81-90.

Eckert, G.J. 1985. Settlement of coral reef fishes to different natural substrata and depths. Proc. 5th Internat. Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, 1985, 5: 385-390.

Sale, P.F. 1985. Patterns of recruitment in coral reef fishes. Fifth International Congress on Coral Reefs, Proceedings 5:391-396.

Sale, P.F. 1985. Why should they do Biology? Science Education News 34:26-27.

Sale, P.F. 1985. Marine science -- still a brighter future? Marine Studies 3:22. This editorial was subsequently reprinted in Austr. Marine Sci. Bull. 92:14-15 and in Maritime Studies 24:18-19, both 1985.

Sale, P.F., G.P. Jones, J.H. Choat, J. Leis, and D.McB. Williams. 1985. Priorities in ecology of coral reef fishes. Search 16:270-274.

Sutton, M. 1985. Patterns of spacing in a coral reef fish in two habitats on the Great Barrier Reef. Anim. Behav. 33: 1332-1337.

Eckert, G.J. 1984. Annual and spatial variation in recruitment of labroid fishes among seven reefs in the Capricorn/Bunker Group, Great Barrier Reef. Mar. Biol. 78: 123-127.

Sale, P.F. 1984. The structure of communities of fish on coral reefs, and the merit of an hypothesis-testing, manipulative approach to ecology. In: Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence. Strong, D.R., D.S. Simberloff, L.G. Abele, and A. Thistle (eds.), Princeton U.P., Princeton, pp. 478-490.

Sale, P.F. and W.A. Douglas. 1984. Temporal variability in the community structure of fish on coral patch reefs, and the relation of community structure to reef structure. Ecology 65:409-422.

Sale, P.F., P.J. Doherty, G.J. Eckert, W.A. Douglas, and D.J. Ferrell. 1984. Large scale spatial and temporal variation in recruitment to fish populations on coral reefs. Oecologia 64:191-198.

Sale, P.F., W.A. Douglas, and P.J. Doherty. 1984. Choice of microhabitats by coral reef fishes at settlement. Coral Reefs 3:91-100.

Schmitt, P.D. 1984. Marking growth increments in otoliths of larval and juvenile fish by immersion in tetracycline to examine the rate of increment formation. Fish. Bull. 82: 237-242.

Brothers, E.B., D.McB. Williams, and P.F. Sale. 1983. Length of larval life in twelve families of fishes at "One Tree Lagoon", Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar. Biol. 76:319-324.

Doherty, P.J. 1983. Tropical territorial damselfishes: Is density limited by aggression or recruitment? Ecology 64: 176-190.

Doherty, P.J. 1983. Diel, lunar and seasonal rhythms in the reproduction of two tropical damselfishes: Pomacentrus flavicauda and P. wardi. Mar. Biol. 75: 215-224.

Sale, P.F. 1983. Temporal variability in the structure of reef fish communities. In: Proceedings of the Inaugural Great Barrier Reef Conference. Baker, J.T., R.M. Carter, P.W. Sammarco, and K.P. Stark (eds.), James Cook University Press, Townsville, pp. 239-244.

Sale, P.F., and B.J. Sharp. 1983. Correction for bias in visual transect censuses of coral reef fishes. Coral Reefs 2:37-42.

Williams, D.McB. 1983. Daily, monthly and yearly variability in recruitment of a guild of coral reef fishes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 10: 231-237.

Doherty, P.J. 1982. Some effects of density on the juveniles of two species of tropical, territorial damselfish. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 65: 249-261.

Sale, P.F. 1982. The structure and dynamics of coral reef fish communities. In: Theory and Management of Tropical Fisheries. Pauly, D. and G.I. Murphy (eds.), ICLARM Conference Proceedings 9, ICLARM, Manilla, pp. 241-253.

Sale, P.F. 1982. Stock-recruit relationships and regional coexistence in a lottery competitive system: A simulation study. Am. Nat. 120:139-159.

Sale, P.F. and D.McB. Williams. 1982. The ecology of coral reef fishes: Are the patterns more than those expected by chance? Am. Nat. 120:121- 127.

Doherty, P.J. 1981. Coral reef fishes: recruitment-limited assemblages? Proc. Fourth Internat. Coral Reef Symp., Manila, 1981, 2: 465-470.

McWilliam, P.S., P.F. Sale, and D.T. Anderson. 1981. Seasonal changes in resident zooplankton sampled by emergence traps in One Tree Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 52:185-203.

Sale, P.F. and W.A. Douglas. 1981. Precision and accuracy of visual census technique for fish assemblages on coral patch reefs. Env. Biol. Fish. 6:333-339.

Williams, D.McB. and P.F. Sale. 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment of juvenile coral reef fishes to coral habitats within One Tree Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef. Mar. Biol. 65:245-253.

Austin, A.D., S.A. Austin, and P.F. Sale. 1980. Community structure of the fauna associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis (L.) on the Great Barrier Reef. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 31:163-174.

Sale, P.F. 1980. Butterfly and Angelfishes of the world, Vol. 1, Australia. Steene, R.C. (ed.). Book review. Fisheries 5:

Sale, P.F. 1980. Behavioural Ecology. Krebs, J.R. and N.B. Davies (eds.). Book review. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 109:581.

Sale, P.F. 1980. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 18:367-421.

Sale, P.F. 1980. Assemblages of fish on patch reefs -- predictable or unpredictable? Env. Biol. Fish. 5:243-249.

Sale, P.F., P.J. Doherty, and W.A. Douglas. 1980. Juvenile recruitment strategies and coexistence of territorial pomacentrids. Bull. mar. Sci. 30:147-158.

Williams, D.McB. 1980. Dynamics of the pomacentrid community on small patch reefs in One Tree Lagoon (Great Barrier Reef). Bull. Mar. Sci. 30: 159-170.

Sale, P.F. 1979. Recruitment, loss, and coexistence in a guild of territorial reef fishes. Oecologia 42:159-177.

Sale, P.F. 1979. Behavioural aspects of ecology. In: Recher, H.F., D. Lunney, and I. Dunn (eds.), A Natural Legacy. Ecology in Australia. Pergamon, Sydney, pp. 120-134.

Sale, P.F. 1979. Habitat partitioning and competition in fish communities. In: Clepper, H. (ed.), Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management. Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, D.C., pp. 323-331.

Sale, P.F. 1978. Reef fish and other vertebrates: A comparison of social structure. In: Reese, E.S. and F.J. Lighter (eds.), Contrasts in Behavior. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp. 313-346.

Sale, P.F. 1978. Chance patterns of demographic change in populations of territorial fish in coral rubble patches at Heron Reef. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 34:233-243.

Sale, P.F. 1978. Coexistence of coral reef fishes -- a lottery for living space. Env. Biol. Fish. 3:85-102.

Sale, P.F ., and R. Dybdahl. 1978. Determinants of community structure for coral reef fishes in isolated coral heads at lagoonal and reef slope sites. Oecologia 34:57-74.

Sale, P.F., P.S. McWilliam, and D.T. Anderson. 1978. Faunal relationships among the near-reef zooplankton at three locations on Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, and seasonal changes in this fauna. Mar. Biol. 49:133- 145.

Moran, M.J. and P.F. Sale. 1977. Seasonal variation in territorial response and other aspects of the ecology of the Australian temperate pomacentrid fish, Parma microlepis. Mar. Biol. 39:121-128.

Sale, P.F. 1977. The ethology of predation. Zoophysiology and Ecology, Vol. 7, Springer Verlag (Curio, E., ed.). Book review. Behavioural Processes 2:202-203.

Sale, P.F. 1977. Biology and Geology of Coral Reefs, Vol. III Biology 2 (Jones, O.A. and R. Endean, eds.). Book review. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 106:410.

Sale, P.F. 1977. Maintenance of high diversity in coral reef fish communities. Am. Nat. 111:337-359.

Sale, P.F. 1976. The effect of territorial adult pomacentrid fishes on the recruitment and survival of juveniles on patches of coral rubble. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 24:297-306.

Sale, P.F. 1976. Change in diversity of reef fish communities along a local gradient of environmental predictability. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 57:24.

Sale, P.F. 1976. Reef fish lottery. Natural History 85:60-65.

Sale, P.F., D.C. Potts, and E. Frankel. 1976. Status of Acanthaster studies in 1975. Search 7:334-338.

Sale, P.F., P.S. McWilliam, and D.T. Anderson. 1976. Composition of the near-reef zooplankton at Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Mar. Biol. 34:59-66

Robertson, C.M. and P.F. Sale. 1975. Sexual discrimination in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Behaviour 54:1-26.

Sale, P.F. 1975. One Tree Island -- an island for science. Austr. Marine Sci. Bull. 52:5-6.

Sale, P.F. 1975. Patterns of use of space in a guild of territorial reef fishes. Mar. Biol. 29:89-97.

Sale, P.F., and R. Dybdahl. 1975. Determinants of community structure for coral reef fishes in an experimental habitat. Ecology 56:1343-1355.

Sale, P.F., D.T. Anderson, and P.S. McWilliam. 1975. The near-reef plankton at Heron Island -- a preliminary account. In: Crown-of- Thorns Seminar, Brisbane, September 6, 1974, Proceedings. Austr. Govt. Printing Office, Canberra, ACT, pp. 149-157.

Sale, P.F. 1974. Overlap in resource use and interspecific competition. Oecologia 17:245-256.

Sale, P.F. 1974. Mechanisms of co-existence in a guild of territorial reef fishes at Heron Island. In: Second Internat. Symp. Coral Reefs, Proceedings, Vol. 1. Great Barrier Reef Committee, Brisbane, pp. 193- 206.

O'Gower, A.K., D.F. McMichael, and P.F. Sale. 1973. Crown-of-Thorns: A report to the Great Barrier Reef Committee. Search 4:368-369.

Sale, P.F. 1972. Niche overlap and instability in reef fish communities. In: Crown-of-Thorns Seminar, Proceedings, 25 August, 1972, Dept. Education and Science, Canberra, ACT, pp. 72-82.

Sale, P.F. 1972. Effect of cover on agonistic behavior in a reef fish -- a possible spacing mechanism. Ecology 53:753-758.

Sale, P.F. 1972. Influence of corals in the dispersion of the pomacentrid fish, Dascyllus aruanus. Ecology 53:741-744.

Low, R.M. 1971. Interspecific territoriality in a pomacentrid reef fish, Pomacentrus flavicauda Whitley. Ecology 52: 648-654.

Sale, P.F. 1971. The reproductive behaviour of the pomacentrid fish, Chromis caeruleus. Z. Tierpsychol. 29:156-164.

Sale, P.F. 1971. Extremely limited home range in a coral reef fish, Dascyllus aruanus (Pisces: Pomacentridae). Copeia 1971:324-327.

Sale, P.F. 1971. Apparent effect of prior experience on a habitat preference exhibited by the reef fish, Dascyllus aruanus (Pisces: Pomacentridae). Anim. Behav. 19:247-252.

Sale, P.F. 1970. Behaviour of the humbug fish, Dascyllus aruanus. Austr. Natur. Hist. 16:362-366.

Sale, P.F. 1970. Distribution of larval acanthurids off Hawaii. Copeia 1970:765-766.

Sale, P.F. 1969. A suggested mechanism for habitat selection by the juvenile manini, Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis Streets. Behaviour 35:3-44.

Sale, P.F. 1969. Pertinent stimuli for habitat selection by the juvenile manini, Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis. Ecology 50:616-623.

Sale, P.F. 1968. Influence of cover availability on depth preference of the juvenile manini, Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis. Copeia 1968:802-807.

Sale, P.F. 1967. A re-examination of the taxonomic position of the Aurora trout. Canad. J. Zool. 45:215-225.

Sale, P.F. 1962. A note on the lethal temperature of the Aurora trout, Salvelinus timagamiensis. Canad. J. Zool. 40:367-369.

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